Swift chapter 1 2018-12-19T13:02:29+00:00

SWIFT CHAPTER ‌‌ 1

Topics:(Basic, Integer,Boolean )

The Basics

Swift is a new programming language for iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS app development. Nonetheless, many parts of Swift will be familiar from your experience of developing in C and Objective-C.

Swift provides its own versions of all fundamental C and Objective-C types, including Int for integers, Double and Float for floating-point values, Bool for Boolean values, and String for textual data. Swift also provides powerful versions of the three primary collection types, Array, Set, and Dictionary, as described in Collection Types.

Like C, Swift uses variables to store and refer to values by an identifying name. Swift also makes extensive use of variables whose values can’t be changed. These are known as constants, and are much more powerful than constants in C. Constants are used throughout Swift to make code safer and clearer in intent when you work with values that don’t need to change.

In addition to familiar types, Swift introduces advanced types not found in Objective-C, such as tuples. Tuples enable you to create and pass around groupings of values. You can use a tuple to return multiple values from a function as a single compound value.

Swift also introduces optional types, which handle the absence of a value. Optionals say either “there is a value, and it equals x” or “there isn’t a value at all”. Using optionals is similar to using nil with pointers in Objective-C, but they work for any type, not just classes. Not only are optionals safer and more expressive than nil pointers in Objective-C, they’re at the heart of many of Swift’s most powerful features.

Swift is a type-safe language, which means the language helps you to be clear about the types of values your code can work with. If part of your code requires a String, type safety prevents you from passing it an Int by mistake. Likewise, type safety prevents you from accidentally passing an optional String to a piece of code that requires a non optional String. Type safety helps you catch and fix errors as early as possible in the development process.

Local Environment Setup

Swift 4 provides a Playground platform for learning purpose and we are going to setup the same. You need xCode software to start your Swift 4 coding in Playground. Once you are comfortable with the concepts of Swift 4, you can use xCode IDE for iSO/OS x application development.

To start with, we consider you already have an account at Apple Developer website. Once you are logged in, go to the following link − Download for Apple Developers

This will list down a number of software available as follows −

Now select xCode and download it by clicking on the given link near to disc image. After downloading the dmg file, you can install it by simply double-clicking on it and following the given instructions. Finally, follow the given instructions and drop xCode icon into the Application folder.

Now you have xCode installed on your machine. Next, open Xcode from the Application folder and proceed after accepting the terms and conditions. If everything is fine, you will get the following screen −

Select Get started with a playground option and enter a name for playground and select iOS as platform. Finally, you will get the Playground window as follows −

Following is the code taken from the default Swift 4 Playground Window.

import UIKit
var str = "Hello, playground"

If you create the same program for OS X program, then it will include import Cocoa and the program will look like as follows −

import Cocoa
var str = "Hello, playground"

When the above program gets loaded, it should display the following result in Playground result area (Right Hand Side).

Hello, playground

Congratulations, you have your Swift 4 programming environment ready and you can proceed with your learning.

Constants and Variables

Constants and variables associate a name (such as maximumNumberOfLoginAttempts or welcomeMessage) with a value of a particular type (such as the number 10 or the string “Hello”). The value of a constant can’t be changed once it’s set, whereas a variable can be set to a different value in the future.

Declaring Constants and Variables

Constants and variables must be declared before they’re used. You declare constants with the let keyword and variables with the var keyword. Here’s an example of how constants and variables can be used to track the number of login attempts a user has made:

let maximumNumberOfLoginAttempts = 10

var currentLoginAttempt = 0

Type Annotations

You can provide a type annotation when you declare a constant or variable, to be clear about the kind of values the constant or variable can store. Write a type annotation by placing a colon after the constant or variable name, followed by a space, followed by the name of the type to use.

This example provides a type annotation for a variable called welcomeMessage, to indicate that the variable can store String values:

var welcomeMessage:

The colon in the declaration means “…of type…,” so the code above can be read as:

“Declare a variable called welcomeMessage that is of type String.”

The phrase “of type String” means “can store any String value.” Think of it as meaning “the type of thing” (or “the kind of thing”) that can be stored.

The welcomeMessage variable can now be set to any string value without error:

welcomeMessage = “Hello”

You can define multiple related variables of the same type on a single line, separated by commas, with a single type annotation after the final variable name:

var red, green, blue:

Naming Constants and Variables

Constant and variable names can contain almost any character, including Unicode characters:

let π = 3.14159

let 你好 = 你好世界

let 🐶🐮 = “dogcow”

Constant and variable names can’t contain whitespace characters, mathematical symbols, arrows, private-use (or invalid) Unicode code points, or line- and box-drawing characters. Nor can they begin with a number, although numbers may be included elsewhere within the name.

Once you’ve declared a constant or variable of a certain type, you can’t declare it again with the same name, or change it to store values of a different type. Nor can you change a constant into a variable or a variable into a constant.

You can change the value of an existing variable to another value of a compatible type.

Printing in Swift

To print anything in swift we have ‘ print ‘ keyword.

Print has three different properties.

Items – Items to be printed

Separator – separator between items

Terminator – the value with which line should end, let’s see a example and syntax of same.

Printing in Swift

To print anything in swift we have ‘ print ‘ keyword.

Print has three different properties.

Items – Items to be printed

Separator – separator between items

Terminator – the value with which line should end, let’s see a example and syntax of same.

print(“Items to print”, separator: “Value ” , terminator: “Value”)

// E.g. of print statement.

print(“Value one”)

// prints “Value one \n” Adds, \n as terminator and ” ” as separator by

default.

print(“Value one”,”Value two”, separator: ” Next Value” , terminator: ” End”)

In the above code first print statement adds \n , newline Feed as terminator by default, where as in second print statement we’ve given ” End ” as terminator, hence it’ll print “End ” instead of \n.

We can give our custom separator and terminators according to our requirement.

Comments

Use comments to include nonexecutable text in your code, as a note or reminder to yourself. Comments are ignored by the Swift compiler when your code is compiled.

Comments in Swift are very similar to comments in C. Single-line comments begin with two forward-slashes (//):

// This is a comment.

Multiline comments start with a forward-slash followed by an asterisk (/*) and end with an asterisk followed by a forward-slash (*/):

/* This is also a comment

but is written over multiple lines. */

Semicolons

Unlike many other languages, Swift doesn’t require you to write a semicolon (;) after each statement in your code, although you can do so if you wish. However, semicolons are required if you want to write multiple separate statements on a single line:

let cat = 🐱; print(cat)

// Prints “🐱

Integers

Integers are whole numbers with no fractional component, such as 42 and -23. Integers are either signed (positive, zero, or negative) or unsigned (positive or zero).Swift provides signed and unsigned integers in 8, 16, 32, and 64 bit forms. These integers follow a naming convention similar to C, in that an 8-bit unsigned integer is of type UInt8, and a 32-bit signed integer is of type Int32. Like all types in Swift, these integer types have capitalized names.

Integer Bounds

You can access the minimum and maximum values of each integer type with its min and max properties:

let minValue = UInt8.min  // minValue is equal to 0, and is of type UInt8

let maxValue = UInt8.max  // maxValue is equal to 255, and is of type UInt8

The values of these properties are of the appropriate-sized number type (such as UInt8 in the example above) and can therefore be used in expressions alongside other values of the same type.

Int

In most cases, you don’t need to pick a specific size of integer to use in your code. Swift provides an additional integer type, Int, which has the same size as the current platform’s native word size:

On a 32-bit platform, Int is the same size as Int32.

On a 64-bit platform, Int is the same size as Int64.

Unless you need to work with a specific size of integer, always use Int for integer values in your code. This aids code consistency and interoperability. Even on 32-bit platforms, Int can store any value between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647, and is large enough for many integer ranges.

  UInt

Swift also provides an unsigned integer type, UInt, which has the same size as the current platform’s native word size:

On a 32-bit platform, UInt is the same size as UInt32.

On a 64-bit platform, UInt is the same size as UInt64.

Floating-Point Numbers

Floating-point numbers are numbers with a fractional component, such as 3.14159, 0.1, and -273.15.Floating-point types can represent a much wider range of values than integer types, and can store numbers that are much larger or smaller than can be stored in an Int. Swift provides two signed floating-point number types:

Double represents a 64-bit floating-point number.

Float represents a 32-bit floating-point number.

Type Safety and Type Inference

Swift is a type-safe language. A type safe language encourages you to be clear about the types of values your code can work with. If part of your code requires a String, you can’t pass it an Int by mistake.

Because Swift is type safe, it performs type checks when compiling your code and flags any mismatched types as errors. This enables you to catch and fix errors as early as possible in the development process.

Type-checking helps you avoid errors when you’re working with different types of values. However, this doesn’t mean that you have to specify the type of every constant and variable that you declare. If you don’t specify the type of value you need, Swift uses type inference to work out the appropriate type. Type inference enables a compiler to deduce the type of a particular expression automatically when it compiles your code, simply by examining the values you provide.

Because of type inference, Swift requires far fewer type declarations than languages such as C or Objective-C. Constants and variables are still explicitly typed, but much of the work of specifying their type is done for you.

Type inference is particularly useful when you declare a constant or variable with an initial value. This is often done by assigning a literal value (or literal) to the constant or variable at the point that you declare it. (A literal value is a value that appears directly in your source code, such as 42 and 3.14159 in the examples below.)

For example, if you assign a literal value of 42 to a new constant without saying what type it is, Swift infers that you want the constant to be an Int, because you have initialized it with a number that looks like an integer:

let meaningOfLife = 42

// meaningOfLife is inferred to be of type Int

Likewise, if you don’t specify a type for a floating-point literal, Swift infers that you want to create a Double:

let pi = 3.14159

// pi is inferred to be of type Double

Swift always chooses Double (rather than Float) when inferring the type of floating-point numbers.

If you combine integer and floating-point literals in an expression, a type of Double will be inferred from the context:

let anotherPi = 3 + 0.14159

// anotherPi is also inferred to be of type Double

The literal value of 3 has no explicit type in and of itself, and so an appropriate output type of Double is inferred from the presence of a floating-point literal as part of the addition.

Integer Conversion

The range of numbers that can be stored in an integer constant or variable is different for each numeric type. An Int8 constant or variable can store numbers between -128 and 127, whereas a UInt8 constant or variable can store numbers between 0 and 255. A number that won’t fit into a constant or variable of a sized integer type is reported as an error when your code is compiled:

let cannotBeNegative:  = -1

// UInt8 cannot store negative numbers, and so this will report an error

let tooBig:  = Int8.max + 1

// Int8 cannot store a number larger than its maximum value,

// and so this will also report an error

Because each numeric type can store a different range of values, you must opt in to numeric type conversion on a case-by-case basis. This opt-in approach prevents hidden conversion errors and helps make type conversion intentions explicit in your code.

To convert one specific number type to another, you initialize a new number of the desired type with the existing value. In the example below, the constant twoThousand is of type UInt16, whereas the constant one is of type UInt8. They can’t be added together directly, because they’re not of the same type. Instead, this example calls UInt16(one) to create a new UInt16 initialized with the value of one, and uses this value in place of the original:

let twoThousand:  = 2_000

let one:  = 1

let twoThousandAndOne = twoThousand + UInt16(one)

Because both sides of the addition are now of type UInt16, the addition is allowed. The output constant (twoThousandAndOne) is inferred to be of type UInt16, because it’s the sum of two UInt16 values.

SomeType(ofInitialValue) is the default way to call the initializer of a Swift type and pass in an initial value. Behind the scenes, UInt16 has an initializer that accepts a UInt8 value, and so this initializer is used to make a new UInt16 from an existing UInt8. You can’t pass in any type here, however—it has to be a type for which UInt16 provides an initializer. Extending existing types to provide initializers that accept new types (including your own type definitions) is covered in Extensions.

Integer and Floating-Point Conversion

Conversions between integer and floating-point numeric types must be made explicit:

let three = 3

let pointOneFourOneFiveNine = 0.14159

let pi = Double(three) + pointOneFourOneFiveNine

// pi equals 3.14159, and is inferred to be of type Double

Here, the value of the constant three is used to create a new value of type Double, so that both sides of the addition are of the same type. Without this conversion in place, the addition would not be allowed.

Floating-point to integer conversion must also be made explicit. An integer type can be initialized with a Double or Float value:

let integerPi = Int(pi)

// integerPi equals 3, and is inferred to be of type Int

Floating-point values are always truncated when used to initialize a new integer value in this way. This means that 4.75 becomes 4, and -3.9 becomes -3.

Type Aliases

Type aliases define an alternative name for an existing type. You define type aliases with the typealias keyword.Type aliases are useful when you want to refer to an existing type by a name that is contextually more appropriate, such as when working with data of a specific size from an external source:

typealias AudioSample =

Once you define a type alias, you can use the alias anywhere you might use the original name:

var maxAmplitudeFound = AudioSample.min

// maxAmplitudeFound is now 0

Here, AudioSample is defined as an alias for UInt16. Because it’s an alias, the call to AudioSample.min actually calls UInt16.min, which provides an initial value of 0 for the maxAmplitudeFound variable.

Booleans

Swift has a basic Boolean type, called Bool. Boolean values are referred to as logical, because they can only ever be true or false. Swift provides two Boolean constant values, true and false:

let orangesAreOrange = true

let turnipsAreDelicious = false

The types of orangesAreOrange and turnipsAreDelicious have been inferred as Bool from the fact that they were initialised with Boolean literal values. As with Int and Double above, you don’t need to declare constants or variables as Bool if you set them to true or false as soon as you create them. Type inference helps make Swift code more concise and readable when it initialises constants or variables with other values whose type is already known.Boolean values are particularly useful when you work with conditional statements such as the if statement.

Tuples

Tuples group multiple values into a single compound value. The values within a tuple can be of any type and don’t have to be of the same type as each other.

In this example, (404, “Not Found”) is a tuple that describes an HTTP status code. An HTTP status code is a special value returned by a web server whenever you request a web page. A status code of 404 Not Found is returned if you request a webpage that doesn’t exist.

let http404Error = (404, “Not Found”)

// http404Error is of type (Int, String), and equals (404, “Not Found”)

The (404, “Not Found”) tuple groups together an Int and a String to give the HTTP status code two separate values: a number and a human-readable description. It can be described as “a tuple of type (Int, String)”.

You can create tuples from any permutation of types, and they can contain as many different types as you like. There’s nothing stopping you from having a tuple of type (Int, Int, Int), or (String, Bool), or indeed any other permutation you require.

You can decompose a tuple’s contents into separate constants or variables, which you then access as usual:

let (statusCode, statusMessage) = http404Error

print(“The status code is \(statusCode))

// Prints “The status code is 404”

print(“The status message is \(statusMessage))

// Prints “The status message is Not Found”

If you only need some of the tuple’s values, ignore parts of the tuple with an underscore (_) when you decompose the tuple:

let (justTheStatusCode, _) = http404Error

print(“The status code is \(justTheStatusCode))

// Prints “The status code is 404”

Alternatively, access the individual element values in a tuple using index numbers starting at zero:

print(“The status code is \(http404Error.0))

// Prints “The status code is 404”

print(“The status message is \(http404Error.1))

// Prints “The status message is Not Found”

You can name the individual elements in a tuple when the tuple is defined:

let http200Status = (statusCode: 200, description: “OK”)

If you name the elements in a tuple, you can use the element names to access the values of those elements:

print(“The status code is \(http200Status.statusCode))

// Prints “The status code is 200”

print(“The status message is \(http200Status.description))

// Prints “The status message is OK”

Tuples are particularly useful as the return values of functions. A function that tries to retrieve a web page might return the (Int, String) tuple type to describe the success or failure of the page retrieval. By returning a tuple with two distinct values, each of a different type, the function provides more useful information about its outcome than if it could only return a single value of a single type.

This Is A Custom Widget

This Sliding Bar can be switched on or off in theme options, and can take any widget you throw at it or even fill it with your custom HTML Code. Its perfect for grabbing the attention of your viewers. Choose between 1, 2, 3 or 4 columns, set the background color, widget divider color, activate transparency, a top border or fully disable it on desktop and mobile.

This Is A Custom Widget

This Sliding Bar can be switched on or off in theme options, and can take any widget you throw at it or even fill it with your custom HTML Code. Its perfect for grabbing the attention of your viewers. Choose between 1, 2, 3 or 4 columns, set the background color, widget divider color, activate transparency, a top border or fully disable it on desktop and mobile.